Bisphenol A (commonly known as BPA) is a substance widely used in the production of plastics with a huge global demand. It is often detected in the wastewater produced by households and factories and ends up in rivers or oceans as it cannot be fully removed by sewage treatment, according to studies done in Greece and Spain. Even though BPA is quickly metabolized and removed from human body through urine, there is a risk of human exposure as suggested by
With high economic growth and rapid urbanization like many Southeast Asian countries, energy consumption in cities had raised tremendously in Malaysia as much as fivefold as stated in the National Energy Balance 2003 Malaysia published by the Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication. Due to our year long hot and humid tropical climate, total number of households with air conditioners has grown dramatically from 13,000 in 1970 to 775,000 in 2000 as household incomes increased. Thus, passive cooling techniques (without
Ozone is not usually generated directly from a pollutant source like other air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, respirable particulates and formaldehyde. Instead, it is a byproduct of a complex photochemical reactions (with the presence of sunlight) involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides as a secondary pollutant. Being a photochemical oxidant and the main component of smog, ozone can cause detrimental health effects to humans when inhaled and damage plants due to its phytotoxic characteristic.